Lesson 8 - Nominal endings - Introduction

Aside from consonant gradation, which tells us the grade of each stem, nominal ending is another important factor that may affect how cases are attached to the stem.

There are two types of ending in this case: Words ending in a vowel and words ending in a consonant.

There are four important forms to learn when encountering a new word. These forms are not irregular, nor are they unpredictable. They are the foundations of all Kven nominals.

1. Grade 0 weak/strong stem (Nominative/basic form/dictionary form)

e.g. kirja (a book), raha (money), ratas (tire), laki (law)

2. Grade –1 weak stem

e.g. kirja-, raha-, ratas-, laji-

3. Grade +1 strong stem (not for all word)

e.g. rahha-, rathaa-, lakkii-

4. Partitive singular

e.g. kirjaa, rahhaa, ratasta, lakkii


Words ending in a vowel

Words ending in a consonant


-VV (words of one syllable, with two vowels at the end. *V = vowel)


-a, , -o, , -u, -y

-nu, -ny, -lu, -ly, -su, -sy, -ru



Comparative -mpi







-us, -ys, -os, -ös, -es



-el, -en, -er, or -ar




Superlative -in